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Data Communication & networking

This blog is for undergraduate/graduate students who require some basic information about their subjects or any other topic related to data communication.

Sunday, 27 March 2011

TCP / IP Model

 
TCP / IP Model
The TCP/IP model, or Internet Protocol Suite, describes a set of general design guidelines and implementations of specific networking protocols to enable computers to communicate over a network. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination.








Layer
Description
Protocols


Application

Defines TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network.

HTTP, Telnet, FTP, TFTP, SNMP, DNS, SMTP, X Windows, other application protocols
Transport

Provides communication session management between host computers. Defines the level of service and status of the connection used when transporting data.

TCP, UDP, RTP
Internet
Packages data into IP datagrams, which contain source and destination address information that is used to forward the datagrams between hosts and across networks. Performs routing of IP datagrams.
IP, ICMP, ARP, RARP
Network interface
Specifies details of how data is physically sent through the network, including how bits are electrically signaled by hardware devices that interface directly with a network medium, such as coaxial cable, optical fiber, or twisted-pair copper wire.
Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay, RS-232, v.35

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